Statistical Overview of the Canadian Greenhouse Vegetable Industry, 2019

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Overview

The Canadian greenhouse vegetable sector is the largest and fastest growing segment of Canadian horticulture. Greenhouse farming produces agricultural products in self-contained ‘controlled environments’ with systems supplying heat, water, and nutrients, and often employing artificial lighting (in addition to sunlight) to nourish the plants. This method of farming requires investment in infrastructure and a strong understanding of the technology. In the early 1990s, Canada emerged as the leading producer of greenhouse products in North America. While the United States and Mexico later became important greenhouse producers as well, greenhouse production seasons vary between countries and regions. Canada is also the only North American country with annual government statistics on greenhouse production.

The increased demand from Canadian and American consumers for a wide variety of fresh year-round produce is the main factor behind the growth of the greenhouse industry in North America. To meet steady demand, retailers are increasingly demanding consistent year-round volumes from their suppliers. As a result, individual marketers, with varying degrees of vertical integration, have developed their own grower/customer relationships and brand identities both in the U.S. and Canadian markets. Marketers use a variety of partnerships, investments, and construction of their own growing and packing facilities to ensure they can meet demand from geographically-diverse sources across the continent. Greenhouse products with features of sustained predictable availability, high quality, and more varieties have taken a dominant market share in the fresh vegetable markets at the retail level. Greenhouse peppers, cucumbers and a wide variety of tomatoes (cluster, grape, cherry) are now widely available at retail throughout Canada and the U.S. throughout the year.

Production of greenhouse vegetables is scheduled so that new plants come into production when domestic field crops are still months away. Around early December, after an annual complete cleaning of the greenhouse and removal of all previous plant material, new plantlets are brought in from a propagator and placed along rows of growing media. In mid-winter, as days start getting longer, production begins and continues through the summer and fall. In late November or December, when natural light levels are near their lowest and heating costs are highest, production stops and the annual clean-out/sterilization of the greenhouse takes place to get ready for the next cycle. For plants requiring pollination such as tomatoes, boxes of bumblebees are placed in the greenhouse for the season.

Canadian greenhouse vegetable growers use both seasonal and permanent employees. Seasonal employees are employees who work less than eight months during the year, while permanent employees work more than eight months during the year. The total number of employees of specialized greenhouse operations has been relatively stable over the past five years. In 2019, 12,492 people were employed in the greenhouse vegetable sector: 7,347 permanent employees and 5,145 seasonal employees. Ontario accounted for 66% of the total number of greenhouse employees in Canada.

In 2019, there were a total of 838 commercial greenhouse vegetable operations with 17.6 million square metres of production area which produced nearly 664,450 metric tons of vegetables. There has been a steady increase in greenhouse vegetable production in Canada and it is anticipated that acreages in greenhouse vegetable production will continue to grow. The acreage has increased 21% over the last five year and 48% over the last decade. Ontario continued to lead the greenhouse vegetable sector in 2019, representing 69% of the total production in Canada, followed by British Columbia and Quebec, with 18% and 6% respectively.

Canada’s greenhouse vegetable growers produce tomatoes, cucumbers, lettuce, bell-peppers, green/yellow beans, eggplants and various herbs and microgreen vegetables. Of these commodities, tomatoes, cucumbers, and peppers are the main greenhouse vegetable crops grown in Canada. Tomatoes accounted for 37% of the total greenhouse vegetable sales, followed by cucumbers and peppers, which accounted for 31% and 28%, respectively. Total sales of greenhouse fruit and vegetables rose 5% to reach nearly $1.6 billion in 2019 - continuing the annual increases that began in 2013. Greenhouse cucumbers continued to show strong sales and production numbers for 2019, with sales increasing 10% to $485 million.

The value of greenhouse vegetable exports rose 11% from 2018 to reach over $1.1 billion in 2019, exceeding the $1-billion milestone for the second consecutive year. The value of greenhouse vegetable exports is the highest of all fresh produce (fruits, greenhouse vegetables, mushrooms, field vegetables, and potatoes) in Canada, accounting for 49% of all fresh produce exports. Greenhouse peppers accounted for 38% of the total value of exports, followed by greenhouse tomatoes with 35% and by cucumbers and gherkins with 27%. The value of pepper exports rose 19% from 2018, surpassing the value of tomato exports which was the top greenhouse export in 2018.

The United States has been Canada’s main export destination for greenhouse vegetables over several years. In 2019, the value of exports to the United States accounted for 99% of all Canadian greenhouse vegetable exports.

In 2019, Canada imported $331 million worth of greenhouse vegetables (tomatoes, peppers, cucumbers, and lettuce). The top two greenhouse vegetable import sources were Mexico, accounting for 83%, and the United States, accounting for 13%. In terms of value, peppers (45%) are the largest imported commodity, followed by tomatoes (41%) and cucumbers (15%).

As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, greenhouse facilities in Canada faced business disruptions due to outbreaks and public health mandated closures to production facilities. While the sector proved to be resilient, concerns regarding the availability and access to agricultural labour for the 2020/2021 crop remain front and centre. Notably, temporary foreign workers (TFWs) have become a vital part of the workforce for many agricultural employers. The greenhouse sector in particular relies on TFWs for about one-third of its workforce due to its extended production cycle. Greenhouse crops tend to have the longest production cycle of all horticultural crops, with planting and harvesting occurring almost continuously from January to December.

1. Production

1.1. Number of greenhouse vegetable operations1 by province

2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Atlantic provinces2 54 52 52 51 49
Quebec 242 247 250 238 235
Ontario 315 323 330 325 315
Prairie provinces2 100 107 101 102 94
British Columbia 150 160 154 150 145
Canada 861 894 889 866 838

Notes:

1. Number of operations represents the number of specialized greenhouse vegetable and fruit operations and includes all other types of enclosed protection used for growing plants, such as rigid insulation, mine shafts, barns and shelters. Mixed operations (vegetables, flowers and plants) are excluded.

2. Due to confidentiality reasons, provincial breakdowns for Atlantic and Prairie provinces are not shown.

Source: Statistics Canada. Table 32-10-0019-01 Estimates of specialized greenhouse operations, greenhouse area, and months of operation

1.2. Harvested area of greenhouse vegetables by province (square metres)

2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Newfoundland and Labrador 5,132 647 5,900 6,539 5,257
Prince Edward Island F/x F/x 13,531 14,935 12,169
Nova Scotia 77,992 F/x 83,556 82,265 87,282
New Brunswick 5,042 121 4,086 4,617 6,983
Quebec 951,534 915,475 1,145,549 1,228,400 1,274,804
Ontario 10,061,143 10,972,697 11,670,213 12,194,927 12,395,943
Manitoba 5,245 496 6,955 8,287 11,530
Saskatchewan 14,139 2,003 15,954 17,300 13,089
Alberta 544,222 547,626 670,984 719,049 741,985
British Columbia 2,881,096 3,088,435 3,222,661 3,136,709 3,032,257
Canada1 14,592,933 15,928,094 16,878,194 17,430,846 17,613,713

Notes:

1. Totals may not add up as some data was suppressed to meet confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act.

F/x: Too unreliable to be published or suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act.

Source: Statistics Canada. Table 32-10-0456-01 Production and value of greenhouse vegetables

1.3. Harvested area of greenhouse vegetables by province – percent share, 2019

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Harvested area of greenhouse vegetables by province – percent share

  • Ontario: 71%
  • British Columbia: 17%
  • Quebec: 7%
  • Others: 5%

Source: Statistics Canada. Table 32-10-0456-01 Production and value of greenhouse vegetables

1.4. Harvested area of greenhouse vegetables by commodity (square metres)

2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Tomatoes 5,513,837 5,990,278 6,356,198 6,579,782 6,459,296
Peppers 4,940,683 5,385,939 5,625,383 5,615,729 5,574,511
Cucumbers 3,739,159 4,005,746 4,321,832 4,559,877 4,841,470
Lettuce 187,343 174,696 209,183 236,813 317,382
Eggplants n/a 90,123 109,631 110,519 107,706
Fine herbs n/a 26,922 90,429 69,737 103,655
Other fruits or vegetables 211,911 194,393 85,214 131,831 97,715
Microgreens and shoots n/a n/a 16,773 69,479 59,480
Chinese vegetables n/a 55,471 48,740 43,396 37,850
Beans (green and wax) n/a 4,526 6,630 6,998 8,914
Sprouts n/a n/a 8,181 6,685 5,734
Total 14,592,933 15,928,094 16,878,194 17,430,846 17,613,713

Note:

n/a : Not available for a specific reference period.

Source: Statistics Canada. Table 32-10-0456-01 Production and value of greenhouse vegetables

1.5. Harvested area of greenhouse vegetables by commodity – percent share, 2019

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Harvested area of greenhouse vegetables by commodity – percent share

  • Tomatoes: 37%
  • Peppers: 32%
  • Cucumbers: 27%
  • Others: 4%

Source: Statistics Canada. Table 32-10-0456-01 Production and value of greenhouse vegetables

1.6. Greenhouse vegetable production by province (metric tonnes)

2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Newfoundland and Labrador 10 3 8 14 25
Prince Edward Island F/x F/x 2 448 407
Nova Scotia 3,090 1,248 2,914 2,872 3,088
New Brunswick 29 1 F/x 45 304
Quebec 6,110 27,938 38,772 41,333 40,995
Ontario 420,081 424,451 438,680 452,009 461,296
Manitoba 152 3 186 205 218
Saskatchewan 189 22 224 209 175
Alberta 22,195 23,150 33,170 37,161 37,844
British Columbia 114,652 90,881 120,864 123,000 119,682
Canada2 587,825 604,990 636,723 660,259 664,449

Notes:

1. Does not include lettuce in 2015.

2. Totals may not add up as some data was suppressed to meet confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act.

F/x: Too unreliable to be published or suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act.

Source: Statistics Canada. Table 32-10-0456-01 Production and value of greenhouse vegetables

1.7. Greenhouse vegetable production by province – percent share, 2019

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Greenhouse vegetable production by province – percent share

  • Ontario: 69%
  • British Columbia: 18%
  • Quebec: 6%
  • Alberta: 6%
  • Others: 1%

Source: Statistics Canada. Table 32-10-0456-01 Production and value of greenhouse vegetables

1.8. Greenhouse vegetable production by commodity (metric tonnes)

2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Tomatoes 261,677 271,006 279,494 279,433 269,659
Cucumbers 186,306 189,704 206,227 228,764 240,451
Peppers 134,644 135,657 139,060 139,153 140,745
Lettuce 5,198 4,876 6,256 7,049 8,302
Eggplants .. 2,904 3,456 3,476 3,036
Fine herbs .. 219 755 572 938
Microgreens and shoots .. .. 164 919 569
Chinese vegetables .. 587 495 442 368
Sprouts .. .. 776 405 337
Beans (green and wax) .. 36 40 47 45
Total 587,825 604,990 636,723 660,259 664,449

Note:

.. : Not available for a specific reference period.

Source: Statistics Canada. Table 32-10-0456-01 Production and value of greenhouse vegetables

1.9. Farm gate value of greenhouse vegetables by province (thousands of Canadian dollars)

2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Newfoundland and Labrador 145 42 141 94 133
Prince Edward Island F/x F/x 8 1,897 1,902
Nova Scotia 8,433 8,012 7,516 4,793 9,227
New Brunswick 244 29 115 189 1,073
Quebec 36,568 98,861 128,839 143,496 148,162
Ontario 831,591 859,787 917,857 955,527 1,032,326
Manitoba 609 82 975 1,201 1,511
Saskatchewan 1,386 715 708 1,415 952
Alberta 53,584 54,689 69,386 81,003 85,256
British Columbia 296,577 294,435 289,930 296,885 305,413
Canada1 1,295,856 1,331,163 1,437,089 1,512,118 1,587,417

Notes:

1. Totals may not add up as some data was suppressed to meet confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act.

F/x: Too unreliable to be published or suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act.

Source: Statistics Canada. Table 32-10-0456-01 Production and value of greenhouse vegetables

1.10. Farm gate value of greenhouse vegetables by commodity (thousands of Canadian dollars)

2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Tomatoes 514,251 537,032 555,196 569,574 588,519
Cucumbers 316,495 336,050 395,760 443,018 485,815
Peppers 420,539 409,980 421,873 428,451 441,680
Lettuce 28,769 27,366 32,036 33,941 35,396
Eggplants .. 7,757 11,531 11,727 10,561
Fine herbs 0 3,559 8,576 7,066 10,349
Other fruits or vegetables 15,802 7,839 6,047 7,459 7,190
Microgreens and shoots .. .. 3,585 8,384 5,684
Chinese vegetables .. 1,226 1,180 1,076 930
Sprouts .. .. 993 1,014 896
Beans (green and wax) .. 353 313 406 399
Total 1,295,856 1,331,163 1,437,089 1,512,118 1,587,417

Note:

.. : Not available for a specific reference period.

Source: Statistics Canada. Table 32-10-0456-01 Production and value of greenhouse vegetables

2. Labour

2.1. Total number of employees of specialized greenhouse vegetable operations

2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Atlantic provinces Seasonal employees1 63 47 81 90 77
Permanent employees2 58 56 83 89 119
Total employees 121 103 164 179 196
Quebec Seasonal employees1 467 549 463 404 400
Permanent employees2 800 758 800 824 789
Total employees 1,267 1,307 1,263 1,228 1,189
Ontario Seasonal employees1 3,380 3,231 3,550 3,694 3,742
Permanent employees2 3,400 4,183 4,438 4,352 4,533
Total employees 6,780 7,414 7,988 8,046 8,275
Prairie provinces Seasonal employees1 120 129 183 161 157
Permanent employees2 385 373 669 680 701
Total employees 505 502 852 841 858
British Columbia Seasonal employees1 940 846 1,033 980 769
Permanent employees2 1,265 1,311 1,268 1,151 1,205
Total employees 2,205 2,157 2,301 2,131 1,974
Canada Seasonal employees1 4,970 4,805 5,310 5,329 5,145
Permanent employees2 5,908 6,701 7,254 7,096 7,347
Total employees 10,878 11,506 12,564 12,425 12,492

Notes:

1. Seasonal employees who worked less than 8 months during the year.

2. Permanent employees who worked more than 8 months during the year.
Due to confidentiality reasons, provincial breakdowns for Atlantic and Prairie provinces are not shown.

Source: Statistics Canada. Table 32-10-0028-01 Total number of employees of specialized greenhouse operations

3. Trade

3.1. Canadian greenhouse vegetable trade balance (thousands of Canadian dollars)

2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Exports 827,500 862,769 964,121 1,001,911 1,107,804
Import 369,810 460,392 383,735 332,631 331,112
Trade Balance
(Exports - Imports)
457,689 402,377 580,386 669,280 776,692
Source: Statistics Canada (CATSNET, November 2020)

3.2. Exports

3.2.1. Canada's greenhouse vegetable exports by commodity – value (thousands of Canadian dollars)

2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Peppers 329,947 317,935 331,568 352,869 420,415
Tomatoes 311,310 341,598 391,123 368,492 385,558
Cucumbers and gherkins 186,242 203,236 241,431 280,549 301,831
Total 827,500 862,769 964,121 1,001,911 1,107,804
Source: Statistics Canada (CATSNET, November 2020)

3.2.2. Canada's greenhouse vegetable exports by commodity – volume (metric tonnes)

2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Tomatoes 125,327 140,083 152,617 138,161 138,555
Cucumbers and gherkins 93,631 96,310 104,038 114,215 118,594
Peppers 82,317 83,114 83,582 83,338 94,022
Total 301,275 319,507 340,237 335,714 351,171
Source: Statistics Canada (CATSNET, November 2020)

3.2.3. Canada's greenhouse vegetable exports by province – value (thousands of Canadian dollars)

2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Prince Edward Island 0 7 0 0 0
Nova Scotia 3 1 0 2 2
New Brunswick 3 8 2 3 6
Quebec 5,766 6,970 11,616 17,775 18,549
Ontario 654,262 684,573 788,194 819,996 920,164
Manitoba 0 0 0 6 8
Alberta 378 620 4,687 9,484 4,725
British Columbia 167,087 170,591 159,622 154,646 164,351
Total 827,500 862,769 964,121 1,001,911 1,107,804
Source: Statistics Canada (CATSNET, November 2020)

3.2.4. Canada's greenhouse vegetable exports by province – volume (metric tonnes)

2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Prince Edward Island 0 2 0 0 0
Nova Scotia 1 0 0 1 1
New Brunswick 1 2 1 1 2
Québec 4,370 4,394 4,906 5,185 4,839
Ontario 247,821 264,352 283,369 283,112 296,985
Manitoba 0 0 0 6 3
Alberta 206 354 2,263 4,376 2,570
British Columbia 48,876 50,402 49,699 43,034 46,773
Total 301,275 319,507 340,237 335,714 351,171
Source: Statistics Canada (CATSNET, November 2020)

3.2.5. Greenhouse vegetable destinations by commodity – value (thousands of Canadian dollars)

2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
United States Peppers 329,693 317,559 330,817 352,053 419,512
Tomatoes 309,363 337,592 385,920 362,467 381,081
Cucumbers and gherkins 186,202 203,208 241,418 280,520 301,814
Total 825,258 858,359 958,155 995,040 1,102,407
Japan Tomatoes 1,539 3,442 4,381 5,267 3,500
Peppers 0 15 337 574 672
Cucumbers and gherkins 17 0 0 0 0
Total 1,556 3,456 4,718 5,841 4,172
Taiwan Tomatoes 261 503 630 626 790
Peppers 0 10 43 16 4
Cucumbers and gherkins 0 0 0 0 0
Total 261 513 673 641 794
Hong Kong Peppers 174 316 277 213 203
Tomatoes 136 51 175 132 175
Cucumbers and gherkins 6 7 11 28 14
Total 316 373 464 373 392
France Peppers 11 14 8 10 12
Cucumbers and gherkins 0 0 0 0 1
Tomatoes 0 0 0 0 0
Total 11 15 9 11 13
Other countries Peppers 69 21 85 3 11
Cucumbers and gherkins 11 11 16 1 13
Tomatoes 17 21 1 1 1
Total 97 53 102 4 26
Total Peppers 329,947 317,935 331,568 352,869 420,415
Tomatoes 311,310 341,598 391,123 368,492 385,558
Cucumbers and gherkins 186,242 203,236 241,431 280,549 301,831
Total 827,500 862,769 964,121 1,001,911 1,107,804
Source: Statistics Canada (CATSNET, November 2020)

3.2.6. Greenhouse vegetable destinations by commodity – volume (metric tonnes)

2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
United States Tomatoes 124,689 138,767 150,961 136,306 137,155
Cucumbers and gherkins 93,615 96,301 104,034 114,205 118,588
Peppers 82,243 82,990 83,377 83,130 93,792
Total 300,547 318,059 338,372 333,641 349,535
Japan Tomatoes 505 1,135 1,397 1,613 1,085
Peppers 0 4 86 140 165
Cucumbers and gherkins 6 0 0 0 0
Total 511 1,139 1,483 1,753 1,250
Taiwan Tomatoes 84 161 196 199 255
Peppers 0 3 13 4 1
Cucumbers and gherkins 0 0 0 0 0
Total 84 164 208 203 256
Hong Kong Peppers 52 93 79 61 58
Tomatoes 45 16 58 43 55
Cucumbers and gherkins 2 2 4 10 6
Total 99 112 142 113 119
France Peppers 2 4 2 2 3
Cucumbers and gherkins 0 0 0 0 0
Tomatoes 0 0 0 0 0
Total 3 4 2 3 4
Other countries Tomatoes 4 3 5 0 5
Peppers 20 20 25 1 2
Cucumbers and gherkins 20 20 25 1 2
Total 31 30 30 1 8
Total Tomatoes 125,327 140,083 152,617 138,161 138,555
Cucumbers and gherkins 93,631 96,310 104,038 114,215 118,594
Peppers 82,317 83,114 83,582 83,338 94,022
Total 301,275 319,507 340,237 335,714 351,171
Source: Statistics Canada (CATSNET, November 2020)

3.3. Imports

3.3.1. Canada's greenhouse vegetable imports by commodity – value (thousands of Canadian dollars)

2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Peppers 129,741 172,910 140,311 138,543 147,434
Tomatoes 194,890 239,829 197,474 149,830 134,786
Cucumbers and gherkins 44,348 46,885 45,088 43,705 48,489
Lettuce 794 721 863 553 402
Cabbage lettuce, head lettuce 38 47 - 0 0
Total 369,810 460,392 383,735 332,631 331,112
Source: Statistics Canada (CATSNET, November 2020)

3.3.2. Canada's greenhouse vegetable imports by commodity –volume (metric tonnes)

2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Peppers 38,086 45,415 43,567 49,453 47,204
Tomatoes 70,712 83,720 75,506 68,721 59,743
Cucumbers and gherkins 25,063 25,305 23,473 23,775 24,197
Lettuce 284 317 374 181 111
Cabbage lettuce, head lettuce 27 36 0 0 0
Total 134,171 154,792 142,919 142,131 131,256
Source: Statistics Canada (CATSNET, November 2020)

3.3.3. Greenhouse vegetable import sources – value (thousands of Canadian dollars)

2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Mexico Peppers 105,933 144,679 124,743 121,986 122,664
Tomatoes 174,814 211,696 175,043 126,643 109,673
Cucumbers and gherkins 33,742 37,932 38,890 37,594 37,539
Lettuce 5 9 2 46 16
Cabbage lettuce, head lettuce 1 0 0 0 0
Total 314,495 394,317 338,678 286,268 269,892
United States Tomatoes 19,577 27,593 22,017 22,895 24,889
Cucumbers and gherkins 8,134 6,186 5,102 5,025 9,354
Peppers 4,776 7,224 6,209 6,390 7,787
Lettuce 762 689 840 468 344
Cabbage lettuce, head lettuce 36 46 0 0 0
Total 33,285 41,738 34,167 34,778 42,373
Spain Peppers 14,807 16,059 5,093 7,478 10,533
Cucumbers and gherkins 2,114 2,135 720 646 1,351
Lettuce 0 0 12 14 4
Tomatoes 23 110 0 0 0
Cabbage lettuce, head lettuce 0 0 0 0 0
Total 16,943 18,305 5,825 8,139 11,888
Netherlands Tomatoes 0 0 3 0 0
Cabbage lettuce, head lettuce 0 0 0 0 0
Lettuce 2 0 0 0 0
Cucumbers and gherkins 21 419 227 283 82
Peppers 156 1,529 1,238 1,151 3,120
Total 178 1,948 1,468 1,434 3,202
Israel Peppers 1,633 1,752 76 463 326
Tomatoes 13 0 56 0 0
Cabbage lettuce, head lettuce 0 0 0 0 0
Lettuce 0 0 0 0 0
Cucumbers and gherkins 0 22 0 0 0
Total 1,646 1,774 132 463 326
Other countries Peppers 2,436 1,666 2,952 1,075 3,005
Tomatoes 463 429 355 292 225
Cucumbers and gherkins 336 192 149 156 164
Lettuce 25 22 9 25 37
Cabbage lettuce, head lettuce 2 1 0 0 0
Total 3,262 2,311 3,465 1,549 3,431
Total Peppers 129,741 172,910 140,311 138,543 147,434
Tomatoes 194,890 239,829 197,474 149,830 134,786
Cucumbers and gherkins 44,348 46,885 45,088 43,705 48,489
Lettuce 794 721 863 553 402
Cabbage lettuce, head lettuce 38 47 0 0 0
Total 369,810 460,392 383,735 332,631 331,112
Source: Statistics Canada (CATSNET, November 2020)

3.3.4. Greenhouse vegetable import sources – volume (metric tonnes)

2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Mexico Peppers 31,908 38,071 39,397 44,377 39,672
Tomatoes 63,058 73,401 67,488 59,124 49,910
Cucumbers and gherkins 20,583 21,686 21,009 21,337 19,744
Lettuce 1 4 1 19 12
Cabbage lettuce, head lettuce 0 0 0 0 0
Total 115,551 133,162 127,895 124,857 109,337
United States Tomatoes 7,400 10,138 7,882 9,500 9,759
Cucumbers and gherkins 3,151 2,362 1,913 1,951 3,636
Peppers 1,317 1,994 2,035 2,577 3,012
Lettuce 278 309 366 158 96
Cabbage lettuce, head lettuce 26 36 0 0 0
Total 12,172 14,839 12,196 14,187 16,503
Spain Peppers 3,722 4,047 1,290 1,618 2,594
Cucumbers and gherkins 1,149 951 352 308 657
Lettuce 0 0 4 2 1
Tomatoes 14 33 0 0 0
Cabbage lettuce, head lettuce 0 0 0 0 0
Total 4,885 5,031 1,646 1,928 3,252
Netherlands Peppers 26 381 338 365 805
Cucumbers and gherkins 13 216 140 109 52
Lettuce 0 0 0 0 0
Tomatoes 0 0 1 0 0
Cabbage lettuce, head lettuce 0 0 0 0 0
Total 39 597 480 474 856
Israel Peppers 421 490 28 94 63
Tomatoes 3 0 18 0 0
Cabbage lettuce, head lettuce 0 0 0 0 0
Lettuce 0 0 0 0 0
Cucumbers and gherkins 0 12 0 0 0
Total 424 502 46 94 63
Other countries Peppers 691 432 479 423 1,059
Tomatoes 238 148 117 96 75
Cucumbers and gherkins 166 77 58 70 108
Lettuce 4 3 3 2 3
Cabbage lettuce, head lettuce 0 1 0 0 0
Total 1,100 661 656 591 1,244
Total Peppers 38,086 45,415 43,567 49,453 47,204
Tomatoes 70,712 83,720 75,506 68,721 59,743
Cucumbers and gherkins 25,063 25,305 23,473 23,775 24,197
Lettuce 284 317 374 181 111
Cabbage lettuce, head lettuce 27 36 0 0 0
Total 134,171 154,792 142,919 142,131 131,256
Source: Statistics Canada (CATSNET, November 2020)

4. Key Resources

  • Statistics Canada. Table 32-10-0456-01 Production and value of greenhouse vegetables
  • Statistics Canada. Table 32-10-0019-01 Estimates of specialized greenhouse operations, greenhouse area, and months of operation
  • Statistics Canada. Table 32-10-0028-01 Total number of employees of specialized greenhouse operations
  • Statistics Canada. CATSNET