The following maps and data show levels of moisture in the top five centimeters of soil in Canada on a weekly, bi-weekly and monthly basis. The data is produced from passive microwave satellite data collected by the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite and converted to soil moisture using the latest version of the SMOS soil moisture processor. The data are produced by the European Space Agency. The data are gridded to a resolution of 0.25 degrees. Data quality flags have been applied to remove areas where rainfall is present during the acquisition, where snow cover is detected and when Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) is above an acceptable threshold. These information products highlight where conditions are wetter or drier than normal.
- Download SMOS Data (Open Data)
- Explore map of monthly soil moisture difference from average
- Explore map of bi-weekly soil moisture difference from average
- Explore map of weekly soil moisture difference from average data
- About satellite soil moisture maps
Download SMOS Data (Open Data)
Browse through soil moisture data on Open Data and download maps which show surface soil moisture compared to a long term average.
Explore map of monthly soil moisture difference from average data
This data product represents the monthly volumetric soil moisture (percent saturated soil) for the surface layer (<5 cm) compared to the long term average. Monthly anomalies show trends that are longer in duration than shorter time periods.
Explore map of bi-weekly soil moisture difference from average
This data product represents bi-weekly volumetric soil moisture (percent saturated soil) for the surface layer (<5 cm). Bi-weekly anomalies show trends that are shorter in duration than monthly data but longer in duration than weekly data.
Explore map of weekly soil moisture difference from average
This data product represents weekly volumetric soil moisture (percent saturated soil) for the surface layer (<5 cm). Weekly anomalies show trends that are shorter in duration than biweekly or monthly periods.
About satellite soil moisture maps
Satellite soil moisture maps are produced using remotely sensed data from the European Space Agency's Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite mission. In this mission, satellites are used to sense the strength of radiation emitted from the surface of the earth. There is a strong difference in the signals emitted by dry soil and wet soil. This relationship is used to calculate surface soil moisture using a model that incorporates land cover, vegetation content, surface roughness, soil texture and other factors that influence the satellite sensor. The satellite collects data every one to three days over Canada. To learn more about the mission, visit the Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity website.
Difference from average soil moisture is calculated by comparing current conditions data to the average in the data collected since the SMOS satellite launch in 2009. In the maps, areas covered by snow, frozen ground, dense vegetation, or areas with high elevation appear white and are removed from the data. Signals that interfere with producing an accurate picture of surface soil moisture conditions are also removed.
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada's soil moisture map products are produced on a weekly, bi-weekly and monthly basis for all of Canada. These products are used for many purposes, including risk assessment, emergency monitoring, estimating food production and flood prediction.
For more information on the calculation of soil moisture, please refer to the SMOS Soil Moisture Retrieval Algorithm.
For an evaluation of this data as an indicator of drought and excess moisture, please see Monitoring Agricultural Risk in Canada Using L-Band Passive Microwave Soil Moisture from Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity.
To access in-situ soil moisture data, please refer to the Real‐Time In‐Situ Soil Monitoring For Agriculture (RISMA) Network.