Culling and replacement rates in dairy herds in Canada

This page represents the main culling and replacement rates in Canada

Number of cows and herds enrolled on a milk recording program
Cows 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021
Number of herds enrolled on a milk recording program 8,299 7,827 7,246 6,787 6,446 6,284
Number of cows 691,743 703,143 661,638 621,509 614,064 600,480
Culling Reasons
Culling Reasons 2016
Number of cows
2016
Total (%)
2017
Number of cows
2017
Total (%)
2018
Number of cows
2018
Total (%)
2019
Number of cows
2019
Total (%)
2020
Number of cows
2020
Total (%)
2021
Number of cows
2021
Total (%)
Reproductive 42,251 16.6% 39,772 16.9% 44,646 16.8% 39,993 15.9% 38,120 15.2% 37,408 15.5%
Mastitis 27,708 10.9% 24,695 10.5% 27,562 10.4% 23,832 9.5% 22,528 9.0% 21,469 8.9%
Feet and leg problems 17,643 6.9% 16,084 6.8% 17,861 6.7% 16,151 6.4% 15,243 6.1% 15,550 6.4%
Low milk production 17,650 6.9% 16,174 6.9% 19,785 7.5% 18,872 7.5% 18,744 7.5% 19,378 8.0%
Sickness 12,140 4.8% 11,841 5.0% 11,352 4.3% 10,521 4.2% 9,717 3.9% 9,405 3.9%
Injury to udder/teats 10,801 4.2% 7,655 3.3% 10,799 4.1% 10,063 4.0% 9,741 3.9% 10,364 4.3%
Injury/Accident 9,414 3.7% 9,161 3.9% 9,134 3.4% 8,321 3.3% 7,992 3.2% 8,023 3.3%
Old age 4,785 1.9% 4,498 1.9% 5,334 2.0% 5,006 2.0% 4,776 1.9% 5,058 2.1%
Difficult calving 1,520 0.6% 1,438 0.6% 1,434 0.5% 1,367 0.5% 1,186 0.5% 1,144 0.5%
Bad temperament 1,758 0.7% 1,501 0.6% 1,784 0.7% 1,902 0.8% 1,855 0.7% 2,052 0.8%
Conformation 1,502 0.6% 1,254 0.5% 1,550 0.6% 1,646 0.7% 1,392 0.6% 1,473 0.6%
Displaced abomasum 848 0.3% 841 0.4% 838 0.3% 816 0.3% 622 0.2% 605 0.3%
Milk fever 1,085 0.4% 1,075 0.5% 1,016 0.4% 1,005 0.4% 801 0.3% 794 0.3%
Slow milker 1,277 0.5% 1,076 0.5% 1,352 0.5% 1,254 0.5% 1,222 0.5% 1,246 0.5%
Arthritis 746 0.3% 709 0.3% 778 0.3% 700 0.3% 645 0.3% 639 0.3%
Pneumonia 903 0.4% 912 0.4% 970 0.4% 913 0.4% 942 0.4% 1,056 0.4%
Staph aureus 537 0.2% 458 0.2% 535 0.2% 458 0.2% 396 0.2% 303 0.1%
Leukosis 565 0.2% 511 0.2% 549 0.2% 457 0.2% 430 0.2% 400 0.2%
Low fat 71 0.0% 65 0.0% 111 0.0% 82 0.0% 81 0.0% 104 0.0%
Paratuberculose 57 0.0% 41 0.0% 48 0.0% 25 0.0% 32 0.0% 35 0.0%
Low protein 16 0.0% 8 0.0% 21 0.0% 23 0.0% 35 0.0% 17 0.0%
Unknown 50,524 19.9% 50,012 21.2% 60,552 22.9% 59,819 23.7% 62,197 24.8% 54,904 22.7%
Total culling reasons 203,801 80.1% 189,781 80.6% 218,011 82.3% 203,226 80.6% 198,697 79.1% 191,427 79.3%
Culling Rate 29.46% 0.0% 26.99% 0.0% 32.95% 0.0% 32.70% 0.0% 32.36% 0.0% 31.88% 0.0%
Other Reasons
Culling Reasons 2016
Number of cows
2016
Total (%)
2017
Number of cows
2017
Total (%)
2018
Number of cows
2018
Total (%)
2019
Number of cows
2019
Total (%)
2020
Number of cows
2020
Total (%)
2021
Number of cows
2021
Total (%)
Dairy production 34,358 13.5% 30,861 13.1% 31,046 11.7% 33,699 13.4% 37,788 15.0% 35,664 14.8%
Exported 2,291 0.9% 1,488 0.6% 1,502 0.6% 1,606 0.6% 1,651 0.7% 1,347 0.6%
Transfers 859 0.3% 927 0.4% 788 0.3% 769 0.3% 992 0.4% 905 0.4%
Rented out 521 0.2% 598 0.3% 556 0.2% 435 0.2% 279 0.1% 347 0.1%
Poison 218 0.1% 193 0.1% 204 0.1% 181 0.1% 204 0.1% 159 0.1%
Peritonitis 232 0.1% 273 0.1% 252 0.1% 257 0.1% 221 0.1% 276 0.1%
Bloat 79 0.0% 93 0.0% 82 0.0% 73 0.0% 50 0.0% 63 0.0%
Electrocution 11 0.0% 24 0.0% 13 0.0% 18 0.0% 7 0.0% 3 0.0%
Others 11,941 4.7% 11,233 4.8% 12,534 4.7% 11,783 4.7% 11,214 4.5% 11,337 4.7%
Total other reasons for replacement 50,510 19.9% 45,690 19.4% 46,977 17.7% 48,821 19.4% 52,406 20.9% 50,101 20.7%
Total Replacement Rate [1] - 36.76% - 33.49% - 40.05% - 40.55% - 40.89% - 40.22%

- Nil
[1] Includes total culling reasons and total other reasons
Source: CanWest DHI and Valacta
Calculations done by Agriculture and Agrifood Canada - Animal Industry Division, Market Information Section

For your convenience, this report is available in the following formats:
PDF (471 KB), XLS (85 KB)

If you have any questions or require additional information, please send an e-mail to aafc.cdic-ccil.aac@agr.gc.ca